SOMALIA COUNTRY REPORT 2003

 

 

ANNEX A 

CHRONOLOGY  

26.6.1960 Independence of British Somaliland protectorate                       

1.7.1960 Merger of former British Somaliland and Italian-administered UN Trust Territory of Somalia as the independent Somali Republic; Somali Youth League (SYL) leads coalition government headed by President Aden Abdullah Osman with Dr Abd ar-Rashid Ali Shirmarke as Prime Minister 

1964 Dr Shirmarke replaced as Prime Minister by Abd ar-Razak Hussein who forms an all-SYL cabinet; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over Ogaden district leads to armed clashes 

6/1967 Dr Shirmarke becomes President; Mohamed Ibrahim Egal appointed Prime Minister 

15.10.1969 President Shirmarke assassinated 

21.10.1969 Military coup led by Commander-in-Chief Major-General Mohamed Siad Barre; Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) proclaims Somali Democratic Republic; Barre vows to eliminate clanism 

10/1970 Barre declares Somalia a socialist state and embarks upon programme of 'scientific socialism' 

1976 SRC dissolved, replaced by Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party with Barre as Secretary-General 

27.6.1977 Former French Somaliland becomes independent Republic of Djibouti 

7/1977 Somalia invades Ogaden district of Ethiopia; Soviet Union switches allegiance from Somalia to Ethiopia 

3/1978  Ethiopia regains Ogaden with Soviet and Cuban assistance;  large numbers of refugees enter Somalia from Ethiopia 

1980 Barre officially becomes President of Somali Democratic Republic 

1982 Barre's Marehan clan consolidates grip on power 

1981Formation of Majerteen-dominated opposition group DFSS (later becomes SSDF) and Isaaq-dominated SNM 

7/1982  DFSS guerrillas invade central Somalia and occupy two towns but invasion repelled by Government forces; severe reprisals against Majerteen clan 

2/1983 Mutiny in northern areas 

11/1984 Barre assumes all powers of government 

12/1986 Barre sole candidate in presidential election - rule confirmed for further 7 years

1987 Increase in attacks on military targets by insurgents 

4/1988 Peace accord with Ethiopia; withdrawal of Ethiopian support for Somali insurgents 

5/1988 SNM invades north-western Somalia, occupying Burao and part of Hargeisa 

6/1988 Fierce counter-offensive by Government forces, led by General Morgan, against SNM in north-west; Hargeisa virtually destroyed, killing 40,000; 400,000 flee to Ethiopia 

7/1989 400 protestors killed in anti-Government demonstrations organised by Hawiye USC in Mogadishu 

8/1989  Barre loses support of Ogaden clan; clashes with Ogaden SPM militia in south, fighting alongside USC forces; Barre offers to relinquish power 

1/1990 Barre dismisses his government but opposition refuses to take posts in new administration 

8/1990 USC, SNM and SPM co-ordinate military campaigns to overthrow Barre 

11/1990 SPM seizes Kismayo 

1/1991 USC forces led by General Aideed capture Mogadishu; SNM takes control of north-west 

27.1.1991 Barre flees Mogadishu

29.1.1991 USC's Ali Mahdi proclaimed temporary President but SNM and SPM oppose his appointment 

3/1991 Increasing divisions along clan lines; opposition groups refuse to participate in USC-organised national conference 

5/1991  Fall of Mengistu regime in Ethiopia

16.5.1991 SNM declares independence of "Republic of Somaliland" in north-west; SNM Chairman Abd ar-Rahman Ahmed Ali `Tur' declared President of breakaway state 

6/1991 Differences within USC, mainly along clan lines, emerge as supporters of Ali Mahdi and General Aideed clash in Mogadishu 

6/1991 Conference of national reconciliation held in Djibouti attended by USC, SDM, SPM and DFSS; SNM refuses to participate 

7/1991 Second conference held in Djibouti, joined by SDA and USF;  the 6 participants declare intention of defeating Barre's SNF and implementing cease-fire;  Ali Mahdi confirmed as President for 2-year period 

7/1991  USC Central Committee elects General Aideed as its Chairman 

18.8.1991  Ali Mahdi sworn in as President 

9/1991 Armed clashes in Mogadishu between rival USC factions leave 300 dead 

11/1991   Aideed supporters capture most of Mogadishu, forcing Ali Mahdi to flee, but Ali Mahdi regains northern Mogadishu by end of mont 

12/1991   Ali Mahdi asks UN to send peacekeeping force 

1/1992  General Aideed opposes UN involvement and sets up his own administration; UN imposes arms embargo on Somalia 

3/1992    Escalation of violence in Mogadishu - 14,000 dead;  inter-clan rivalry leads to clashes in Somaliland, which last until 10/1992

4/1992 SNF's advance on Mogadishu repelled by Aideed's forces; Barre flees Somalia (dies in Nigeria in 1995) 

4/1992 UN sets up UNOSOM 

5/1992 Aideed forms SLA military alliance with other groups including SPM and SDM, which captures Kismayo from SNF 

6/1992 SLA in control of large area of southern and central Somalia; UNOSOM deploys 50-man observer group 

8/1992 SLA forms SNA, headed by Aideed; Ali Mahdi in alliance with anti-Aideed groups, including SSDF and faction of SPM; UNOSOM deploys 500 troops to protect UN personnel and escort food supplies 

12/1992  1,800 strong US-led force takes control of Mogadishu's port and airport; Ali Mahdi and Aideed sign peace agreement under US auspices, but agreement soon broken 

1/1993 33,000 UNITAF troops in Somalia; UN-organised peace negotiations in Addis Ababa attended by 14 groups 

2/1993  UNITAF forces clash with SNF in Kismayo and with armed youths in Mogadishu 

3/1993 UN-sponsored reconciliation conference in Addis Ababa; UN sets up UNOSOM II, with reduced US role; UNOSOM II tasked with enforcing peace and institution-building 

4/1993 SNF recaptures Kismayo 

5/1993 Belgian UN troops clash with SPM around Kismayo; Mohamed Ibrahim Egal replaces Tur as President of Somaliland; Tur denounces Somaliland's secession 

6/1993   Aideed's forces kill 24 Pakistani UN troops in Mogadishu - UNOSOM retaliates with air strikes; UN Security Council issues warrant for Aideed's arrest but he evades capture; clashes between UN forces and Somali militia cause many civilian deaths

9/1993 18 US troops and 300 Somalis die in clashes in Mogadishu leading to US reappraisal of its role and decision to withdraw US forces by 3/1994

11/1993   Ali Mahdi assumes leadership of SSA alliance 

3/1994 Cease-fire agreement signed in Nairobi between SSA and Aideed but agreement soon broken 

6/1994  Further heavy fighting in Mogadishu between Aideed and Ali Mahdi supporters 

7/1994  Aideed's forces take control of Belet Weyne from Hawadle (Hawiye) clan

10/1994  Fighting between Ali Mahdi's forces and Murosade clan in Mogadishu, lasting to 1/1995 

2/1995  UN forces withdraw from Mogadishu headquarters; fighting between rival USC/SNA factions (led by Aideed and Ali Ato) for control of airport 

3/1995 End of UNOSOM intervention - 136 UN personnel and hundreds of Somalis killed in UN operation, which failed to bring peace, but which did provide significant famine relief and establish local administrations in many areas 

6/1995  Divisions within USC/SNA become apparent - Ali Ato faction breaks with Aideed and loosely allies itself with Ali Mahdi; Aideed declares himself President but is recognised only by Libya 

9/1995  Aideed's forces capture Baidoa 

10/1995  Ali Mahdi and Ali Ato supporters ban banana exports to deny Aideed revenue 

1/1996  Aideed's forces capture Huddur

ANNEX B

SOMALI CLAN STRUCTURE

 

MAJOR SOMALI CLAN-FAMILIES:  

1.    DIR:

       Issa

       Gadabursi

       Bimal

 

2.    ISAAQ:

       Habr Awal:

       Saad Muse

       Issa Muse

       Ayub

       Habr Garhadjis:

       Habr Yunis

       Aidagalla

       Arab

       Habr Jaalo (Habr Toljaalo):

       Mohamed Abokor

       Ibrahim

       Muse Abokor

       Ahmad (Toljaalo)

 

3.    DAROD:

       Marehan

       Ogaden

       Harti Confederation:

       Majerteen

       Dulbahante

       Warsangeli

 

4.    HAWIYE:

       Hawadle

       Waadan

       Habr Gedir

       Abgal

       Murosade

       Gaalgale

 

5.    DIGIL:

       Dabarre

       Jiddu

       Tunni

       Geledi

       Garre

 

6.    RAHANWEYN:

       33 clans in two loose alliances:

       The "Eight":

       Maalinweyna

       Harien

       Helleda

       Elai, and others

       The "Nine":

       Gassa Gudda

       Hadama

       Luwai

       Geledi, and others

 

[31] 

For more detailed information on the Somali clan system, refer to the following source documents: -  

Annex 1 to the Netherlands Situation in Somalia report of 1997 (source [32])   

Annex 3 to the Report of the Joint British, Danish and Dutch Fact-Finding Mission to Nairobi, Kenya on Minority Groups in Somalia, September 2000 (source [8])

 

ANNEX C

POLITICAL ORGANISATIONS 

Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya (Islamic Union Party) - a radical Islamic group aiming to unite ethnic Somalis from Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti in an Islamic state. [1a][7] Based in Gedo region; opposed by the Ethiopian government who frequently seek to justify incursions into Somalia by claiming pursuit of Al-Itihaad members; currently opposed by the SNF. [1a][7][22b] Not a participant in the Eldoret or previous peace initiatives, the group is thought to support terrorist activities in Ethiopia. [1a][3d][22b]  

Al-Itihaad has had no defined organisational structure since the creation of the TNG and the decline of Shari'a courts led by Al-Itihaad though it continues to have adherents throughout the country. [2b][7] The group reportedly has a loose network of less than a dozen key leaders, making it hard to identify and target by opposition forces. [7] In the mid 1990's the organisations reportedly operated training camps, however, Al-Itihaad reportedly maintains no standing militia. [2a][7] Security forces and staff for businessmen linked to Al-Itihaad are considered by some to represent a “reserve army” of more than 1,500 militia. [7]

There were reports of links between Al-Itihaad and Osama bin Laden's terrorist network Al-Qaeda. In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001 Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya was one of the organisations linked to terrorism for which US President Bush ordered assets to be blocked. [7] However, a panel of experts appointed by the UN in 2002 to oversee the arms embargo on Somalia found Al-Itihaad to have a largely local agenda and few formal links with Al-Qaeda. [11h] Information obtained by the British/Danish fact-finding delegation who visited Somalia in May 2002 suggests that Al-Itihaad's influence in Somalia has weakened considerably. Al-Itihaad has reportedly switched its emphasis away from armed opposition towards exerting influence through schools, which may be funded from Saudi Arabian sources. [7] 

Allied People's Democratic Party (UDUB) - meaning "pillar" in Somali, a Somaliland party established in July 2001 by late President Egal of Somaliland in preparation for elections in 2002. [1a][10ab] 

Allied Somali Forces (ASF) - alliance of SNF faction and others that captured Kismayo from General Morgan's SPM forces 6/1999; became the Juba Valley Alliance (see JVA below). 

Asad - a Somaliland political party, participated in the December 2002 civic elections polling the least number of votes out of the six parties contesting. [11e] 

G8 - an alliance of faction leaders at the Eldoret/Nairobi Peace talks comprising Mogadishu faction leaders Qanyare, Ali Ato and Omar 'Finish', the JVA, the Madobe/Habsade faction of the RRA, the Gedo based faction of the SNA led by Col. Bihi and SAMO. [10bc] 

Hormood - (Pioneer) a Somaliland political party, participated in the December 2002 civic elections. [11e][14i] In March 2003 the party merged with the Kulmiye party - see below.  [14i] 

Ilesky - a political party in Somaliland, did not stand in the December 2002 civic elections and according to reports the same months planned to merge with the ruling UDUB.  [11e] 

Juba Valley Alliance (JVA) - pro-TNG grouping of Marehan, Ogadeni and Habr Gedir factions that controls Kismayo (formerly the ASF). [1a] Colonel Barre Shire Hiirale, of the Marehan Rer Dini clan and Aden Serrar, of the Habr Gedir Ayr were, as of mid 2002, reported to lead the JVA; by mid 2003 reports suggested Hiirale was the sole leader and chairman. [7][10bd][18e 

Kulmiye - (Solidarity party) Somaliland opposition political party; took the second largest share of votes in the civic elections of December 2002 after the ruling UDUP. [11e][10ai] In the course of its campaign for the 2003 presidential election the party said its candidate would clean up corruption and work harder for international recognition. [10ab] Ahmad Muhammad Silaanyo (Silano) is the party Chairman and candidate in the 2003 presidential elections. [10ab][11e]   

Muslim Youth Party - political party formed in Mogadishu in November 2002; Party Chairman Ibrahim Muhammad Hasan was appointed at the inauguration ceremony. [11d] 

Northern Somali Alliance (NSA) - founded 1997 as an alliance between USF and USP 

Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) - established 1995 to resist occupation of Rahanweyn-populated Bay & Bakool regions by Aideed's USC/SNA; captured Huddur 10/1998 and Baidoa 6/1999; set up autonomous State of Southwestern Somalia in 3/2002; backed by Ethiopia 

Sahan  - Opposition political party in Somaliland, polled the fourth largest number of votes (out of six contesting parties) in the civic elections in December 2002. [11e] 

Somali African Muki Association (SAMO) - represents Bantu minority population; member of SSA. [1a] The leader is Mowlid Ma'ane, also part of the G8 at the Nairobi peace talks. [10bc] 

Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) - founded 1989; represents Gadabursi (Dir) clan in north-west; fought with Siad Barre's forces against SNM and opposes secession of Somaliland; led by Mohamed Farah Abdullah; member of SSA 

Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) - a militarily weak group representing Digil/Rahanweyn clan families; split in 1992 into 2 factions: pro-Ali Mahdi/SSA faction led by Abdulkadir Mohamed Adan and pro-Aideed/SNA faction led by Adam Uthman Abdi (Chairman) and Dr Yasin Ma'alim Abdullahi (Secretary-General) 

Somali Democratic Party (SDP) - formed in 1993 in the Gedo region of Somalia but dormant until revived at the Eldoret peace talks in December 2002 with the apparent aim of securing better representation.  It represents the Sede community (including the Marehan) and describes itself as a "non-violent political party".  At its re-launch the SDP indicated that its focus was representation at Eldoret and similar conferences, it also warned that Sede in Somalia would reject the outcome of talks if the party was not properly represented. The SDP formally supported the SRRC.  The SDP is chairman is Abdi Barre Abdi.  [11e]    

Somali Eastern and Central Front - founded 1991; opposes SNM's secessionist policies in Somaliland; Chairman Hirsi Ismail Mohamed 

Somali National Alliance (SNA) - coalition founded in 1992 by General Aideed comprising his faction of USC, a faction of SDM, Omar Jess' faction of SPM and SSNM (which withdrew in 1993); led by Hussein Aideed following Gen. Aideed's death. [1a] There is a Gedo based faction led by Col. Isak Bihi. [10bc] 

Somali National Democratic Union (SNDU) - small group established 1992 representing two small Darod clans in Galgudud region of central Somalia; led by Ali Ismail Abdi; allied with Ali Mahdi's USC/SSA; participated in 1998 discussions with SSDF and USP to set up Puntland state 

Somali National Front (SNF) - founded 1991 in southern Somalia by Siad Barre loyalists; represents Marehan clan; seeks restoration of SRSP government; controls most of Gedo region; member of SSA; leader General Omar Hadji Mohamed Hersi defected to Aideed and replaced by Colonel Abdirizak Issak Bihi in February 1998; backed by Ethiopia, particularly in its conflict with Al-Ittihaad al-Islamiya 

Somali National Movement (SNM) - founded in London 1981; represents Isaaq clan-family; guerrilla group, initially supported by Ethiopia, until 1991 when took control of north-west, proclaiming independence of Republic of Somaliland; leads government of Somaliland, led by Mohamed Ibrahim Egal 

Somali National Union (SNU) - minor group representing non-ethnic Somalis; member of SSA 

Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) - founded 1989 by Colonel Omar Jess; represents Ogaden clan in the south; divided into 2 factions, one led by Adan Abdullahi Nur Gabeeyow and allied with General Morgan, and member of SSA, the other led by Gedi Ugas Madhar allied with USC in SNA 

Somali People's Democratic Union - founded 1997; breakaway group from SSDF; led by Mohamed Jibril Museh 

Somali Reconciliation & Restoration Council (SRRC) - a loose and changing coalition of nearly 20 clan - based political - military factions opposed to the TNG, established in March 2001 at a meeting in Ethiopia, five co-chairman, Hussein Aideed (USC/SNA) was chosen as the first chairman. [1a][6a][6b][10e] Others were to be Hilowle Iman Umar from North Mogadishu, General Adan Abdullahi Nur Gabyow of the SPM, Hasan Muhammad Nur 'Shatigadud' of the RRA and Abdullahi Shaykh Ismai'l of the SSNM. [10e] On 27 December 2002 it was reported that the chairmanship had again passed back to Hussein Aideed of the USC/SNA. [11e] Recent reports suggest the existence of a SRRC-Mogadishu faction. [3c] 

Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP) - from 1976 to 1991 the sole legitimate political party under Siad Barre's administration; SNF seeks restoration of SRSP government 

Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA)  - grouping of 12 anti-Aideed factions formed 1993, led by Ali Mahdi: USC/SSA, SAMO, SNU, USF, SDA, SDM, SPM, SSDF, SNDU, SNF, SSNM and the Ali Ato faction of the USC/SNA 

Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) - founded 1981 as Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS) as a coalition of 3 factions; represents Majerteen clans in north-east; has formed administration of north-east since 1991 & declared "Puntland State of Somalia" in 7/1998; smaller SSDF group operates in Kismayo in alliance with SNF against SNA; member of SSA; Chairman General Mohamed Abshir, deputy Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ('President' of Puntland from 7/1998) 

Somali Youth League (SYL) - founded 1943 in former Italian Somaliland; dominated governments of independent Somali Republic 1960 to 1969; removed from power by Siad Barre's military coup

Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) - based on southern coast mainly representing Bimal (Dir) clan; set up under Aideed's sponsorship to support Omar Jess' SPM against SNF; part of SNA 1992-93; allied with Ali Mahdi from 1993; member of SSA; Chairman Abdi Warsemeh Isar 

Transitional National Government (TNG) - established as a result of the Arta peace conference in 2000; in process of establishing its authority in Mogadishu; led by interim President Abdiqassim Salad Hassan 

UDUB - see Allied People's Democratic Party 

Ucid (Justice and Welfare party) - Opposition political party in Somaliland, polled the third largest number of votes in the civic elections in December 2002. [10ab][11e] Presidential candidate in the 2003 elections, Faisal Ali Warabe, stated that the party believed in a modern state based on law and order.  The party identifies gender equality, the environment, and building a healthy economy as issues it would focus on in government. [10ab] 

United Somali Congress (USC) - founded 1989 in central Somalia; represents Hawiye clans; overthrew Siad Barre in Mogadishu in 1991 but subsequently divided into factions: 

-USC/SNA [1a] - led by General Aideed and from 1996 his son Hussein; represents Habr Gedir clan; controls southern Mogadishu, Merka, Brava and large parts of Bay and Bakool regions 

-USC/SNA [2] - dissident Habr Gedir USC/SNA faction expelled from SNA in 1995, led by Ali Ato; controls small part of southern Mogadishu; loosely allied with USC/SSA 

-USC/SSA - led by Ali Mahdi; represents Abgal clan; controls northern Mogadishu; part of NSC 

United Somali Congress/Peace Movement (USC/PM) - based on Hawadle (Hawiye) clan; controls most of Hiran region and a very small area around Benadir Hospital in Mogadishu; allied with Ali Mahdi and Musa Sude; member of SSA; led by Colonel Omar Hashi Aden 

United Somali Congress - small Murosade (Hawiye) clan faction which controls the Wardhigley district of northern Mogadishu, independent of both Ali Mahdi's and Hussein Aideed's USC factions; led by Abdullahi Moalim 

United Somali Front (USF) - founded 1989; a marginal group representing Issa (Dir) clan in north-west and opposed to SNM; member of SSA; led by Abd ar-Rahman Dualeh Ali (Chairman) and Mohamed Osman Ali (Secretary-General); allied with USP in 1997 to form NSA 

United Somali Party (USP) - represents Darod clans who oppose SNM's secessionist policies in Somaliland; led by Mohamed Abdi Hashi; allied with USF in 1997 to form NSA; participated in 1998 discussions with SSDF and SNDU to set up Puntland state

 

ANNEX D

PROMINENT PEOPLE 

- Adam Uthman Abdi - Chairman of SDM/SNA;  Rahanweyn clan 

- Abdiqassim Salad Hassan - elected interim President of Somalia for three years by Transitional National Assembly (TNA) following Arta conference in Djibouti 5-8/2000, former Minister of Interior & Deputy Prime Minister under Siad Barre, Habr Gedir (Hawiye) clan, sub-clan Ayr 

- Mohamed Farah Abdullah - leader of SDA;  Gadabursi (Dir) clan  

- Dr Yasin Ma'alim Abdullahi - Secretary-General of SDM/SNA;  Rahanweyn clan 

- General Mohamed Abshir - SSDF leader (Chairman);  Majerteen (Darod) clan 

- Abdulkadir Mohamed Adan - leader of SDM/SSA, one of 5 co-chairmen of NSC;  Rahanweyn clan 

- Hussein Mohamed Aideed - son of General Aideed who succeeded him as Chairman of USC/SNA, and self-styled 'President' of Somalia, in 1996; first chairman of SRRC 2001;  Habr Gedir (Hawiye) clan 

- General Mohamed Farah Aideed - military commander of USC, Chairman of SNA;  declared himself 'President' of Somalia 1995;  died 1996;  Habr Gedir (Hawiye) clan 

- Abd Ar-Rahman Dualeh Ali - Chairman of USF;  Issa clan 

- Mohamed Osman Ali - Secretary-General of USF;  Issa clan 

- Osman Hassan Ali 'Ato' ('Ali Ato') - former aide of General Aideed and leader of breakaway USC/SNA faction, loosely allied with Ali Mahdi's USC/SSA, heads administration in small area of southern Mogadishu;  one of 5 co-chairmen of NSC;  Habr Gedir (Hawiye) clan 

- Colonel Hassan Dahir Aweys - commander of Al-Ittihaad al-Islamiya fundamentalist militia 

- Major-General Mohamed Siad Barre - military ruler 1969-80, Chairman of SRC 1969-76, Secretary-General of SRSP 1976-91, President of Somali Democratic Republic 1980-91; died in exile in Nigeria in 1995; Marehan (Darod) clan 

- Colonel Abdirizak Issak Bihi - SNF leader from February 1998, replacing General Omar Hadji Mohamed Hersi 

- Hossein Haji Bod - North Mogadishu 'warlord' and former deputy of Ali Mahdi; declared his support for the TNG in 12/2000 

- Mohamed Ibrahim Egal - Prime Minister of British Somaliland before independence, Prime Minister of Somali Republic 1967-69, President of "Republic of Somaliland" 5/1993 until his death in office 5/2002; Habr Awal (Isaaq) clan 

- Hassan Abshir Farah - TNG Prime Minister 11/2001 to present (replaced Ali Kalif Galayadh); former Puntland interior minister 

- Omar Mohamoud Mohamed 'Finish' - chairman of the USC/SSA [3d] Formerly a right hand man to Musa Sude, now a faction leader in his own right his forces have come into conflict with those of Sude in the Medina district of Mogadishu several times since 2002. [2a][3c][11k] 

- General Adan Abdullahi Nur 'Gabeeyow' - SPM/SSA, Kismayo-based, one of 5 co-chairmen of NSC; Ogaden (Darod) clan 

- Ali Kalif Galayadh - appointed interim Prime Minister of Somalia by interim President Abdiqassim Salad Hassan 10/2000 but removed from office 10/2001 following no-confidence vote in TNA, Dulbahante (Darod) clan 

- Mohamed Abdi Hashi - leader of USP; Darod clan 

- Ahmed Billie Hassan - leader of Al-Ittihaad al-Islamiya 

- General Omar Hadji Mohamed Hersi - former leader of SNF, realigned behind Hussein Aideed February 1998; replaced as SNF leader by Colonel Abdirizak Issak Bihi 

- Colonel Barre Shire Hiirale (Barre Adan Shire) of the Marehan Rer Dini clan, chairman of the JVA [7][10bd][18e] 

- Abd ar-Razak Hussein - Prime Minister of Somali Republic 1964-67; Darod clan 

- Seyyid Abdullah Issa, SYL leader - 1st Prime Minister of Somali Republic 

- Jama Ali Jama - elected President of Puntland by traditional Elders 11/2001, opposed by Abdullahi Yusuf 

- Colonel Ahmad Omar Jess - set up SPM in 1990, allied his faction of SPM with General Aideed 1991 onwards 

- Gedi Ugas Madhar - Chairman of SPM/SNA;  Darod clan 

- Ali Mahdi Mohamed ('Ali Mahdi') - temporary President appointed by USC 1991, leader of faction of USC, chairman of SSA and one of 5 co-chairmen of NSC;  Abgal (Hawiye clan) 

- General Omar Haji Masalle - SNF leader, defected to Hussein Aideed February 1998 and replaced by Abdirizak Issak Bihi 

- Abdullahi Moalim - leader of small Murosade (Hawiye) United Somali Congress in northern Mogadishu, independent of Ali Mahdi's and Hussein Aideed's USC factions 

- General Mohamed Siad Hersi 'Morgan' - son-in-law of the late Siad Barre, led campaign against SNM in Somaliland in late 1980s and responsible for the destruction of Hargeisa, former leader of SNF, allied to General Adan Abdullahi Nur Gabeeyow's faction of SPM;  Majerteen (sub-clan Abdirahim) 

- Yusuf Haji Nur, Chairman of the Puntland Supreme Court, assumed position as interim President of Puntland 6/2001 to 11/2001 after Abdullahi Yusuf removed from office in constitutional crisis 

- Dr Aden Abdullah Osman - 1st President of Somali Republic 1960-67 

- Dahir Riyale Kahin - President of Somaliland 5/2002 to present; succeeded President Egal upon the latter's death; formerly Egal's Vice-President 

- Yusuf Haji Sa'id - elected as speaker of Puntland's 'parliament' 9/1998 

- Colonel Hassan Mohamed Nur 'Shaatigaduud' - leader of the RRA;  Rahanweyn clan (Harin sub-clan); elected as President of South West State of Somalia 3/2002 

- Dr Abd ar-Rashid Ali Shirmarke - 2nd Prime Minister of Somali Republic 1960-1964, President 1967-69, assassinated;  Darod clan 

- Ahmed Muhammad Silaanyo (Silano), formally a senior minister in Siad Barre's government before he quit in the 1980s to join the SNM and eventually became its leader. [10ab] From 1991, when Somaliland declared its independence, he held various senior ministerial posts until 2001 when he resigned from the government of the late president Egal and was a founder member of the Kulmiye party. [10ab][11e] Observers rated him as a leading contender in the 2003 presidential election. [10ab]

- Musa Sude 'Yalahow' (Musa Sude) - Deputy Chairman of USC/SSA, heads administration in Medina district of southern Mogadishu;  Abgal (Hawiye) clan (Wabudan sub-clan). 

- Abd ar-Rahman Ahmed Ali 'Tur' - SNM Chairman and 1st President of "Republic of Somaliland" 1991-93, later allied with Aideed administration;  Habr Yunis (Isaaq) clan 

- Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Abdullahi Yusuf) - SSDF deputy leader, one of 5 co-chairmen of NSC, President of Puntland 1998 until removed from office in constitutional crisis 6/2001, but still claims to be the legal President;  Majerteen (Darod) clan